Hydraulic Arm  Build A Hydraulic Arm or Bridge
How Does Hydraulics Work  Pascal's Law
Blaise Pascal  Pascal's work in the fields of the study of hydrodynamics and hydrostatics centered on the principles of hydraulic fluids. His inventions include the hydraulic press (using hydraulic pressure to multiply force) and the syringe. He proved that hydrostatic pressure depends not on the weight of the fluid but on the elevation difference. He demonstrated this principle by attaching a thin tube to a barrel full of water and filling the tube with water up to the level of the third floor of a building. This caused the barrel to leak, in what became known as Pascal's barrel experiment.

The word hydraulics comes from the Greek word Hudraulikos  hudor meaning water and aulos – meaning pipe
In a dictionary you will ﬁnd a description such as the science of conveyance of liquids through pipes, especially as motive (motion) power Modern uses of hydraulics reﬂect this well, hydraulic ﬂuid is pushed through pistons and pipes to do work Early evidence of the understanding of the use of hydraulics was demonstrated by Leonardo de Vinci (1452 1519) when he made sketches of simple hydraulic pumps, perhaps for printing presses . Joseph Bramah, a later scientist (17481814), put this theory into practical use, when he found that force applied in a small piston produced a greater force in a larger piston, but with less movement. 
See the tutorial below by clicking on the link and download the worksheet and complete.

Task  Hydraulic Arm or Bridge
See the examples below. Use supplies that your teacher has available to construct a Hydraulic Arm or Hydraulic Bridge.
Sketch Your Idea out first.
Sketch Your Idea out first.
 Build it.
 Test it.
 Modify it.
 Present it.



Video  Fluid Power (Hydraulics) 

Watch the video on Fluid Power.
Reading Selection

Download the reading selection on What is a Mechanical Engineer. Read individually, as a group or class.

In this task you will find out how many Pounds per Square Inch of Pressure/Force energy you can achieve using this Syringe (hydraulic piston) while pushing with 10 lbs of force.
First you need to find the area of the piston (circle). You will need one 20ml syringe and a set of Dial Calipers. Please see the diagram below to understand how to use and read the calipers. Use the small jaws to measure the width of the opening of the cylinder. First find the area of one of the circles; π r2 (pi r squared) (Area of a Circle). Then follow the formula in the middle box to calculate the PSI or pounds per square inch if you were using 10 lbs of force.
First you need to find the area of the piston (circle). You will need one 20ml syringe and a set of Dial Calipers. Please see the diagram below to understand how to use and read the calipers. Use the small jaws to measure the width of the opening of the cylinder. First find the area of one of the circles; π r2 (pi r squared) (Area of a Circle). Then follow the formula in the middle box to calculate the PSI or pounds per square inch if you were using 10 lbs of force.
Extension ActivityDownload the sample instructions for a hydraulic lift. Read it over carefully. Then begin to gather measurement tools and materials. Ask for assistance with supplies and tools from teacher. Begin construction. When done, test your device and then make modifications. Be sure to take pictures of your device from beginning till the end for your portfolio. Remember to receive full credit you are required to have the Hydraulic lift and a completed portfolio per team. Practice working as a team with blocks to get the best time possible so you'll be ready for competition. Make sure you check your checklist and portfolio have all the requirements completed.



Resources used and adapted from the following providers.